Today, a huge amount of materials is published everyday in which the authors promise us a bright future for quantum computers. But do all readers know how they are arranged? How does a regular computer differ from a quantum one? Let’s figure it out.

Contents

## What is quantum computing?

#### Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is one of the most complex sciences. Since most theories and principles in it contradict the fundamental law of Einstein’s theory of relativity in classical physics.

#### Einstein’s theory of relativity

**relativity**, in turn, implies the locality of all physical phenomena in our world. For example, gravity in ordinary physics is the force from which the Earth, or any other massive object, attracts objects that are in a certain range of the radius of attraction. This phenomenon arises from the interaction of the force of attraction with the mass of the object.

In quantum physics, one of the existing theories describes the phenomenon of gravity as the result of the appearance of gravitons. Gravitons are the conditional particles that have a gravitational wave.

Let’s not go so deep into science, it will still be when we discuss. We return to the quantum computers.

There is one more paradoxical theory in quantum physics – the theory of quantum superposition. Thanks to her, quantum calculations became possible.

## What is quantum superposition and how to use it in computing devices?

The theory of superposition itself involves finding quantum particles in two states simultaneously.

#### Qubit

In quantum computers, the quantum particle is a qubit (quantum bit). That is, if in our usual binary computing devices a bit can be strictly in a state of zero or one, then the qubit can apply these two states to itself simultaneously.

The quantum computer will spend much less time to get to the solution of the problem

### Quantum entanglement

### David Deutsch

David DeutscFor the first time, a physicist David Deutsch described the process and design of quantum computers in the mid-1990s. According to his scheme, the initial task in preparing a quantum computer for work is to fix the initial parameters of the entire set of qubits. Further, their transformation, using certain logical operations. After the conclusion of the most likely result of the decision based on the entered values.

And all because qubits are in a state of uncertainty until the moment they are being watched. This is due to their quantum property of superposition. “Observation” in this case is a command to display the final value.

## Will quantum computers replace home PCs?

Maybe. Today, no one can give a definite answer to this question. Indeed, on the one hand, quantum computers are a million times more powerful and faster than ordinary PCs. Therefore you can count on a significant performance increase in games and videos. But on the other hand they are very impractical.

#### Quantum computers require suitable temperature

Kubits, as elements of a computer, are extremely unstable. If certain technical requirements are not observed, qubits can self-destruct. One of these requirements is compliance with thermal conditions. The system, built on qubits, must necessarily be in a case that maintains the temperature – about zero degrees Kelvin. At the moment, the achieved temperature values are 3-4K.

In Celsius we are used to, this is about -269 degrees Even the smallest deviation from this temperature value can serve as a reason for reducing the lifetime of a quantum computer. To achieve such conditions within the framework of domestic operation, at least for today, is extremely difficult.

Therefore, most likely, silicon computers familiar to us will not sink into oblivion for a long time. But the large computing systems used in research centers will definitely switch to new standards in computing. To replace the current come more productive quantum solutions. Thanks to them, the speed of data exchange, as well as security on the Internet will increase exponentially.

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#### Security of Quantum computers

Although there is an opinion, and it is absolutely reasonable, that getting such a computer into the hands of intruders, all our passwords for Internet services, as well as security keys when conducting banking transactions, can be seriously threatened. The generation of a security key is made due to a specific formula. One of the components of which is your personal data. That is why, only when accessing the mobile phone of the cardholder, it is possible to transfer money via SMS confirmation.

In principle, it is possible to calculate the SMS code via a chain of variables sent by the server on a regular computer. But for him, this task will not be the easiest, and it will take decades to complete. For a quantum computer, the solution of this problem will take several seconds, and all because of the property of quantum superposition.

True, this is possible under the condition that the attacked servers will run on silicon chips. In the future, in a corporate environment, this will become a move and non-compliance with safety rules.

#### Modeling of molecular structures

Other areas in which quantum computers will be able to find their use are the modeling of molecular structures. Thanks to quantum simulations, we can get many answers to questions we are interested in regarding space. And the appearance of all life in our universe as well. Also, scientists will be able to discover many new, previously unknown drugs. Thanks to which medicine and pharmacology will take a new level.

Unfortunately, we cannot know for sure whether quantum computers will become the next step in the development of classic PCs. Or they will remain computing machines designed to perform various kinds of specific tasks requiring high accuracy and speed.

## Conclusion

Right now, absolutely anyone who wants to be the first to enter the future and try out a quantum computer right at home can use Google ’s special web browser platform. It simulates the compilation of software code on a quantum computer. The platform is able to simulate a quantum computing system using graphical acceleration WebGL and WebCL. It consists of twenty-two qubits.

Among other things, as examples, the application contains the already classic mathematical algorithms of Shore and Grover. The engineers tried to make the whole process more visual. For that they created an interface with three-dimensional visualization of the compiled algorithm.

So, gentlemen, who at least minimally know one of the scripting languages. I recommend testing your strength and improving your skills a little. Because the future is not as far as it seems.

Thanks for attention.

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